12 Things You Need to Know About a VA Loan – What Every Homebuyer Should Understand

VA Loans, a benefit available to veterans, service members, and select military spouses, offer a chance for potential homeowners to secure a mortgage without a down payment. They are a versatile and valuable benefit, but there are crucial things every prospective borrower should know to make the most out of it.

Below are twelve essential insights into VA Loans, broken down into easily understandable chunks, aimed at helping you navigate through the process more smoothly.

1. Eligibility Criteria

When considering a VA Loan, understanding the eligibility criteria is crucial. This will not only save time but also help in effective planning.

Service Requirements

To benefit from a VA loan, service members need to meet specific service requirements. Generally, they must have served:

  • 90 consecutive days of active service during wartime.
  • 181 days of active service during peacetime.
  • 6 years in the National Guard or Reserves.

Veterans with a discharge due to hardship, the convenience of the government, reduction in force, or certain medical conditions may also be eligible.

Certificate of Eligibility

Obtaining a Certificate of Eligibility (COE) is vital as it validates your qualification for the loan. The COE can be obtained through the VA’s eBenefits website or by mailing in a completed VA Form 26-1880. Lenders also have the ability to obtain this on behalf of their clients.

2. No Down Payment

Down Payment - VA

The absence of a down payment is arguably the most appealing feature of VA loans. This means you can become a homeowner without having to save for years.


Having no down payment significantly reduces the upfront costs associated with buying a home. It makes homeownership accessible for those who haven’t been able to save for a large down payment, providing financial flexibility.

Financial Prudence

While not having to make a down payment is advantageous, it’s essential to maintain financial prudence. Future homeowners should consider other accompanying costs like closing costs and should have an emergency fund to cover unforeseen expenses.

3. Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI)

One of the hidden gems of a VA Loan is the lack of a requirement for Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI), which can save borrowers thousands over the life of the loan.

PMI Explained

Typically, borrowers who can’t make a 20% down payment on conventional loans are required to pay PMI, a monthly premium that protects the lender if you default on the loan. This additional cost is not required with VA loans, reducing monthly payments.

Long-term Savings

The absence of PMI on VA loans can translate to substantial savings over time, allowing homeowners to allocate funds to other financial goals, like retirement or education expenses.

4. Competitive Interest Rates

Competitive Interest Rates

VA Loans tend to have lower interest rates compared to conventional loans, which can mean lower monthly payments and less interest paid over the life of the loan.

Rate Comparison

Lower interest rates can save homeowners thousands of dollars over the loan’s lifespan. A 0.5% to 1% difference in interest rate can make a noticeable difference in monthly payments and the total interest paid.

Rate Lock

Given the fluctuating nature of interest rates, prospective borrowers should consider locking in their rates once they find a competitive one, ensuring that they secure the best possible rate during the loan process.

5. Funding Fee

VA Loans do require a funding fee, a one-time payment that can be financed into the loan or paid at closing, designed to reduce the loan’s cost to taxpayers.

Fee Variability

The VA funding fee varies, depending on factors such as the nature of military service, down payment, and whether the borrower has had a VA loan before. Some may even qualify for a funding fee exemption due to disability.

Payment Flexibility

The ability to roll the funding fee into the loan amount or pay it upfront provides flexibility to borrowers, allowing them to choose the option that best fits their financial situation.

6. Loan Limits

Loan Limits

VA Loan limits, which can impact the purchasing power of the borrower, are another critical aspect to understand, allowing for planning around financial capabilities.

Limit Specifications

VA loan limits dictate the maximum amount one can borrow without a down payment. It’s important to know these limits as they can vary depending on the county in which one is purchasing.

Purchasing Beyond Limits

While the loan limits are in place, purchasing a more expensive home is still possible by making a down payment. Typically, it’s 25% of the difference between the loan limit and the purchase price.

7. Property Requirements

Every VA Loan property must meet a set of Minimum Property Requirements (MPRs) designed to ensure the property is safe, sanitary, and sound.

Inspection and Appraisal

Every VA Loan involves an appraisal by a VA-assigned appraiser, ensuring the property meets MPRs. If a property fails to meet the requirements, the issues must be resolved before the loan can close.

Importance of MPRs

Meeting the MPRs is crucial as it ensures that veterans and service members are purchasing homes that are a solid, long-term investment and are free from major defects.

8. Refinancing Options

Refinancing Options

VA loans offer refinancing options that can help borrowers secure a lower interest rate or reduce their monthly payments, optimizing their mortgage over time.

Interest Rate Reduction Refinance Loan (IRRRL)

The IRRRL, or streamline refinance, allows existing VA loan holders to refinance to a loan with a lower interest rate without requiring an appraisal or underwriting. It’s a simplified process designed for convenience.

Cash-Out Refinance

VA’s cash-out refinance option allows borrowers to take out a new loan for more than they owe on their current VA loan, receiving the difference in cash. This can be helpful for those looking to consolidate debt or make home improvements.

9. Loan Assumption

VA Loans have a unique feature called loan assumption, where a buyer can take over the existing loan of the seller, subject to lender or VA approval.

Buyer Benefits

Assuming a loan can be advantageous for buyers, especially if the existing loan has favorable terms, like a lower interest rate compared to current market rates.

Seller Advantages

For sellers, offering loan assumptions can make their property more attractive to prospective buyers, potentially facilitating a quicker sale of the property.

10. Foreclosure Avoidance

Foreclosure Avoidance

The VA offers assistance to borrowers facing financial hardship, providing options and support to help avoid foreclosure and protect their investments.

VA Assistance

The VA has dedicated loan technicians who work with borrowers to explore all options to avoid foreclosure, such as repayment plans, loan modifications, and short sales.

Importance of Communication

In situations of financial hardship, maintaining open communication with the lender and the VA is crucial, allowing for timely intervention and exploration of suitable solutions.

11. Closing Costs

Closing costs are an inevitable part of the mortgage process, and understanding how they apply to VA loans is essential for effective financial planning.

Allowed Closing Costs

With VA loans, there are limits to what buyers can pay in closing costs, which can include a loan origination fee, credit report fee, and appraisal fee, among others.

Seller Concessions

In a VA loan transaction, sellers can pay all of the buyer’s mortgage-related closing costs and contribute up to 4% of the sales price to cover things like prepaid taxes and insurance, paying off debt, and more.

12. Loan Types and Terms

Loan Types and Terms

VA Loans are versatile, offering different types and terms to fit individual needs, preferences, and financial situations, making them a flexible option for many.


VA Loans offer various types, including fixed-rate loans, adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs), and refinance loans, each with its own set of benefits and considerations.


The terms of VA loans can vary, typically available in 15- or 30-year terms. Choosing the right term is essential, as it impacts the monthly payment and the total interest paid over the life of the loan.


Can I apply for a VA loan if I have bad credit?

Yes, it is possible to apply for it even with bad credit. The VA does not impose a minimum credit score requirement. However, most lenders typically look for a credit score of 620 or higher. It’s essential to work on improving your credit score by paying bills on time and reducing debt to increase your chances of approval.

Can I get a VA loan for a second home or an investment property?

VA loans are generally designated for the purchase of a primary residence, meaning the home where you intend to live. Purchasing a second home or an investment property with a VA loan may have additional requirements or restrictions, so it is recommended to discuss your intentions and circumstances with your lender.

Can I use a VA loan more than once?

Yes, these benefits are reusable. If you have paid off your previous VA loan, you are free to use your VA benefit to buy another home. Even if you have lost a previous home due to foreclosure, you may still have the remaining entitlement to use for another VA loan.

What happens to my VA loan eligibility if I’ve filed for bankruptcy?

A bankruptcy does not disqualify you from obtaining a VA loan. However, most lenders require that at least two years have passed since the discharge of a Chapter 7 bankruptcy.

For a Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you may be eligible after making 12 on-time payments and receiving approval from the bankruptcy court.

Can my spouse co-sign a VA loan with me?

Yes, a spouse can co-sign it. Having a spouse as a co-borrower can be beneficial and may help in meeting the income and credit score requirements of the lender.

Additionally, if your spouse is a veteran, you might qualify for a Joint VA Loan, potentially allowing for a larger amount.

Can I prepay a VA loan without a penalty?

Yes, VA loans do not have a prepayment penalty, meaning you can pay them off early without incurring any additional fees. This feature can save you money on interest over time, allowing for greater financial flexibility and quicker equity building in your home.

Final Words

VA Loans are a powerful tool for veterans and service members, offering advantages like no down payment, no PMI, and competitive interest rates. Understanding the intricate details, from eligibility to loan types and terms, is pivotal for maximizing benefits and making informed decisions.

While understanding the intricacies of VA loans is essential, it’s also crucial to be informed about other investment opportunities, such as the intricacies of timeshares, which have their own set of advantages and challenges.

Whether you’re a first-time homebuyer or looking to refinance, the insights provided above aim to guide you through the intricate world of VA Loans, empowering you to make the best choices for your homeownership journey.